The multi-scale generation and transmission expansion model


One of the challenges in electrical grid expansion planning is how to expand the infrastructure while considering fundamental changes in demand and supply, in part due to “game-changing” consumers, such as electric vehicles (EVs), and optional distributed generation (DG) by consumers. This work proposes an optimization model that addresses the generation and transmission expansion of the grid, including the facilities' locations, upgrades, and the network’s design decisions. In contrast to some other models, it is not static in time- the model considers time-dependent demand in short-term (hourly) and long-term (yearly) variations. The proposed optimization model considers energy loss, transmission substations upgrades, constraints such as demand, capacities, and more. The model minimizes the long-term costs of infrastructure investments and the operational costs of generation. The work is supplemented by numerical experiments of the model in simulated scenarios. Sensitivity analysis conducted on some of the model features, demonstrates the importance of including them in the model.